R z326 haplogroup

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Houghton Surname Project

Shoaibkarni - December 2, Are you looking for the greatest Pokemon Unite Tier List? In this article, we rate all of the Pokemon characters from S to C Kings Raid Tier List November 14,Presented here is the analysis of unrelated L11 derived samples from the Genomes Project. We were able to discover new variants and build a much more complex phylogenetic relationship for L11 sub-clades. Many of the variants were further validated using PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing.

The identification of these new variants will help further the understanding of population history including patrilineal migrations in Western and Central Europe where R1b1a2 is the most frequent haplogroup. The fine-grained phylogenetic tree we present here will also help to refine historical genetic dating studies.

Our findings demonstrate the power of citizen science for analysis of whole genome sequence data. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

R U106 (R1b-U106) Y-DNA Haplogroup

Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Population geneticists are in short supply, and most are involved in the important hunt for genetic factors responsible for susceptibility to disease [1].

Naturally, studies that address genetic susceptibility are prioritized over other types of genetic research. As a result, these studies free up little in the way of both human and monetary resources dedicated to the application of genetics to the history of the human species [2][3]. The study of human phylogenetics is where the practice of citizen science can be a valuable resource to the scientific community.

In the name of citizen science, the authors of this study pooled together their resources and volunteered their time to data mine the full genomes of over a thousand samples that were made freely available through the Genomes Project [4]. The Genomes Project is the first project to sequence the genomes of a large number of people. The plan for the full project is to sequence about 2, samples; however, only the data sets of 1, samples from 13 populations were available in early Recently, there has been much controversy in the dating and dating techniques used to identify the geographical distribution of R1b1a2 by way of microsatellite variance or diversity [7].

The paucity of haplogroup defining genetic markers has meant that these microsatellite-derived dating calculations have to be conducted without regard to lower level phylogenetic relationships, and therefore erroneously compare populations that may be phylogenetically distant. By identifying the lower level branches of the R1b1a2 phylogenetic tree, more accurate dating of truly related haplogroups will be possible.

L11 is divided into two major sub-clades: S and U Using SAMtools and filtering methodology described in the methods section, we identified more than putative non-singleton novel genetic variants in the R1b1a2-L11 samples. The resulting R1b1a2-L11 phylogenetic tree based on Phase 1 Genomes data is presented in Figures 123 and 4. Genetic variants are indicated on branches, and branch lengths are not proportional to the number of mutations or the age of the variant.Post a Comment.

Scroll down to the bottom of the homepage and under Community you find a link to this site. Under I-L selecting I-S Expanding I-S and selecting I-L I notice that the surname Blake has not been listed so may write to FT DNA to mention that my line is in this branch and the Blake line it represents goes back from my brother to my father who was born in Eastleigh, Hampshire, England with his father born at Upper Clatford, Hampshire, England and his paternal line having moved from Andover, Hampshire, England to Upper Clatford in Prior to living at Andover from the late s tothis Blake line was at Knights Enham.

The kit is in a group that has several very enthusiastic genetic genealogists working away and they have given his branch the common name I-PH For my mitochondrial line I was also able to navigate starting at the top with R branch and moving to R0 and expanding it. Then choose HV and expanding it choose H and there are branches under H. Go right to the bottom and choose H-TC!

Then choose H11 which has 16 branches under it. Choose H11a with 13 branches. H11a expands and choose H11a2 as that leads to my haplogroup. There are four more branches and expanding gives H11a2a and it has three branches beneath it.

This, one would surmise, is a predominantly British Isles group. My maternal grandmother was born in Birmingham, England and her mother was also said to be born in Birmingham, England.

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I have communicated with several of the USA members four to be exact of this group and they were descendant of a group from Country Antrim who traveled with the Rev William Martin in to the Carolina Colony. The descendants in the United States tend to refer to this group as Scot-Irish.

The nomenclature for my line H11a2a1. The results for country of origin given above are interested - they total 65 individuals within the FT DNA database that have agreed to have their results used in a research project. I happen to know 2 of the members from England are my brother and myself. All of these individuals are listed in my matches one might think and indeed I have matches between 0 and 3 steps away. I consider 3 steps away to not even be meaningful looking at mitochondrial DNA and actually even 2 steps away does not really entice me to look at the match.

So I have 1 at a genetic distance of 0 and 23 at a genetic distance of 1. I had not really thought to look at this before. Of the 23 that are a genetic distance of 1 20 have taken the Family Finder Test. None of these 20 individuals match me on Family Finder. They are a genetic distance of 1 meaning that our common ancestor could be a thousand years ago. Of this group of 13 only two share greater than 15 cM on Chromosome 23 hence I do not really look at this particular set of matches unless they are sharing larger amounts on other chromosomes.

Expand and choose CT-M Expand and select K-M9. Expanding once again choose K xLT -M Expand once again and select P-M Expand and select R-M Continuing expanding and select R-M There are 8, branches under this branch. Continue to expand and select R-L and there are now 7, branches under this branch.

Expand again and choose R-L; expand again and select R-P which has 7, branches. Expand again and select R-M, expand and select R-L23 and there are now 6, branches under this branch.Jim Nickel; and Geoff Blackburn have contributed to this page. Several thousand years ago a certain mutation occurred in a man's Y chomosome. It has been indentified in a relatively small group of men who have had their DNA tested i wanna taste you poem for him Further testing of a large portion of the Y-chromosome has identified other SNPs that have occurred down to the present time.

Some are unique to everyone in this this group. Some are unique to subsets of this group. And, some are unique to individuals in this group. They are members of the U project. The tree is from Alex Williamson's Big Tree. Testers agree to making their results public on the Big Tree.

We owe Alex Williamson a debt of gratitude for producing his Big Tree and including us in it. These SNPs occurred from about four thousand years ago down to the present time. Scroll to the right and down to see the full tree, or click here for a larger window. A SNP is a "single-nucleotide polymorphism," a mutation that occurs very infrequently.

He lived most of his life nearby in a house in Ostentrop. He also traded in seltzer water, which he bought in Selters, a town between Ostentrop and Frankfurt. See: Trader and Transporter. The Saxons were Germanic tribes who invaded and settled the south and east of Britain from the early 5th century up to the Norman conquest in Our ancestor is from Westphalia, which was part of Old Saxony. Paul is kit number More About the Tree. SNPs are single nucleotide polymorphisms, also called mutations, or variants.

BIG Y tests a large portion of the Y chromosome but not all of it. Originally, Andrew Bootha professor of biology at the University of Leeds, matched them with each other, put them on a spreadsheet, and put the spreadsheet in the Big Y file at the U Yahoo Group.

Andrew died inand Iain McDonaldan astrophysicist at The University of Manchester, has taken over the spreadsheet. He comes originally from an Aberdonian family, and began his interest in genealogy 15 years ago, while trying to identify any family connection to the Lords of the Isles. Unfortunately, there was no connection, but the process led to an avid interest in Scottish genealogy, and the early history and movement of the Scottish people.

As shown above, Alex Williamson is in the process of putting results on his Big Tree. SNPs common to two or more testers are shown above those testers. SNPs are either named or unnamed. Unnamed SNPs have a 7 or 8 digit number based on their position on the Build 37 human reference genome, followed by letters.

The letters indicate the nature of the mutation, e. Named SNPs have been given a short name to make them easieer to remember. If you wave over them with your cursor, you will see the longer SNP designation. Wilson, D. A list of SNPs is presented in unnamed numerical order.Haplogroup R Tree. Could you adopt this page by donating your time to maintain part? Details at:. The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on. Directions for citing the document are listed:. Last revision date for this specific page: 3 October CopyrightInternational Society of Genetic Genealogy.

MPage7. Downloading this spreadsheet as Excel retains format. Links may not copy to new sheet. Main Page. Version History. If differences need clarification or if you find broken links on this page, e-mail:. Listing Criteria. SNP Index. Newly confirmed in within subclade. Confirmed within subclade. SNPs listed below in italics colored black or red are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup. In this situation, evidence seems to indicate they also seem to belong to the same subgroup, but some confirmatory evidence is not yet available.

Contact Persons, Haplogroup R:. R Contact:. R1a Coordinator: Open position. R1b Coordinator: Open position. Sergey Malyshev.Locus Group 1 2 3 Locus.

A relationship and distance in generations can be calculated by comparing the number of mutations and applying the average mutation rate for a haplotype. I use the following:. Hopefully, there will come a non-algorithm type, simple mathematical formula which allows us to input the mutation rate for individual markers to solve for TMRCA. In the last decade, great strides have been made identifying new SNPs down the human genome.

And, anthropologists have been able to match these mutations to specific places on the timeline of human history. With this information, we can affix our forefathers to specific times and places in the migration of modern man. Back when, anthropologists investigated whether R1b1a1a2 [M], who emerged during the Neolithic Period, was connected to Cro-Magnon Man and the cave paintings of the refugium in southern France.

And if connected, Subsequently, M could have been the group who followed the retreating ice shield north across the land bridge to Britain and Ireland. With new information gained more recently, those possibilities have been put to rest.

At the end of the last Ice Age, modern man migrated up the river valleys into central Europe, settling both east and west of the Rhine River in what is now southern Germany and France. From this central location, their descendants emigrated out to the far reaches of Europe.

DF27, our forefathers, first settled in what is now northwest Spain c. Why was our family in Wales? Was it pressure from the invading Romans or the subsequent pressure from the invading Saxons? And, did our people ex-migrate out of Wales into southern England to the vicinity of Bristol or Wiltshire, England, before coming to America?

We do not know. The modern history of our family begins about the time when British colonists--we the Bretons, not the Anglo-Saxon English--braved the Atlantic Ocean to found Jamestown and the Colony of Virginia.

In about or 8 generations ago in Virginia, the family split again onto three new branches. Note, Joseph Lewis and William Young are the same branch of the family. The question is, "What's their story? Continuing research indicates that the Rueben Kennedy family is also associated with the previously mentioned Joseph Lewis and William Young branch.

Again, the question is, "What's their story? Note: There are additional tests which could be added.

Fig. 2: Shared Patrilineal Descent of Romanovs and Mountbattens

However, this chart illustrates the branches of our Lewis family. Name Distance Loci Rate Calculations 1. Caveat This site is provided for reference only. Except where specifically cited, information contained is conjecture and should not be considered as fact.

Home Index About Me. Walden Lewis b. Distance from reference:. Genetic Distance. Probably Related. Possibly Related. This site is provided for reference only.Another idea to consider is that if 7, men have had their R-M tested that's one thing, but if there are as stated million and 99, have not had theirs tested you might be fortunate to discover a match.

It's a much more costly test, Jodi. The type of testing--and what is actually tested--in the common, and marker panels at FTDNA is like the autosomal DNA testing done for forensic and paternity cases, not at all the same type or process of testing as our cheap atDNA microarray tests.

Our inexpensive microarray tests can't examine the STR short tandem repeat markers at all, whether on the Y-chromosome or the autosomes. In a nutshell, the microarrays look like oversized microscope slides, are a glass plate encased in plastic, and are "programmable": the chip contains tens of thousands of "probes" that are tiny, synthetic bits of DNA that will attract specific bits of the test-taker's DNA when the prepared DNA solution is washed over it and allowed to stand a while.

The microarray chips are cheap and can even be reused a few times. In the lab, it's a once-and-done process over a period of a couple of days. The amount of manual time involved is pretty insignificant, which is why hundreds of samples can be run through a lab each day. With the microarrays, bits of prepared DNA either find and stick to the probes, or they don't. In every test run there will be "no calls," places where the probes couldn't identify properly "stuck" DNA.

STRs don't represent different alleles--the A, C, G, T of DNA--but an identified set of usually two to seven base pairs in length that actually replicate themselves in succession on the chromosome. To look for the number of exact repeats, the DNA can't be fragmented like it is for our autosomal tests. If the chromosome strands are cut into arbitrary small pieces, there's no way to count the number of repeats.

Instead, a process much more like traditional Sanger sequencing is employed. A method called polymerase chain reaction is used along with fluorescent staining in order to evaluate the number of repeats at those specific positions along the chromosome. And multiple runs have to be performed in order to arrive at an accurate count.

I know it's more than you ever wanted to know. But it's a very valid question that comes up from time to time. Edited: And what Mike's talking about with the Big Y test is a yet whole 'nother ballgame. That's next-gen full sequencing of the Y-chromosome and goes into coverage depths well beyond what's considered medically valid for whole genome sequencing. If money isn't an issue, however, that's absolutely the way to go for anyone interested in yDNA.

To the extent current testing technology permits it, that's a one-time expense: everything we can know about a Y-chromosome, the Big Y test will reveal it; and the data is continually evaluated and adjusted against things like new haplotree branches and private variants that become named SNPs.

Thank you Edison for your very thorough and informative reply. I still suspect that the price could come down if demand were to increase.

Haplogroup R1b (R-M) is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe and the most common Z12; Z18; Z I was interested in finding out more about my Paternal Haplogroup R-Z So far I know it comes from the R-M group which is pretty. cvnn.eu › ystory › r-z R-Z is a branch on the paternal tree of human kind.

It and branches help trace human history from our origin in Africa. Haplogroup R, or R-M, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is both numerous and widespread amongst modern populations.

Some descendant subclades have. Scientific sample prefixes and any related scholarly papers are listed here. YFull Y-SNPs | aDNA | ISOGG Haplogroup Tree. New subclade Modified subclade id. DNA Marker: Z Chromosome: Y ; R-Z Z rs, Found in haplogroup R1b under U on FTDNA tree. Identification: ISOGG Phylogenetic Parent: Z Haplogroup R descends from a line that made its way from the Near East to the Far East, then back west towards Europe. Z = about BC. This project is a meeting place for users who share the R-Z Y-DNA haplogroup, which means they are related along their paternal lines.

It shows a marked concentration in modern Germany, and regions speaking Germanic languages. However, it is not a substantial fraction of the Swedish population. Network analysis of R-Z haplogroup (based on 67 STR markers).

The red points indicate the putative new lineage A comprising Klassen, Briese and. Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades - 6. 7. 8. Downloading this spreadsheet as Excel retains format.

Links may not copy to new sheet. When talking about ages for any regions under the R-U haplogroup please refer to and utilize Iain McDonald's estimates at. The Z region is the most continental/Germanic region within the larger U haplogroup tree. We do have specific branches which reflect. [Archive] Page 3 Discuss Y-chromosome haplogroups, their history, View Full Version: Y-DNA Haplogroups R-z · Ivan Mestrovic DNA? Mutations in PTPN11 gene was responsible for approximately 50% of the Noonan syndrome (NS), however, we did not find any mutation in PTPN11 in any of seven.

The 10k Genomes Project hasn't published its Y-DNA haplogroup frequencies, R-Z formed in the middle of the second millennium BC, and the Tumulus.

Haplogroup R (link) is one of the 20 major haplogroups of mankind. Five men belong to our Great Britain-2 subgroup, haplogroup R1b-U>Z Haplogroup: R-S (in this manner: L48 > FGC > S > S) (One Big Y test underway.) Map of ancestral locations of R-Z (aka L48+/null ).

R. The sequence alignment/map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics.