Puma punku stone blocks


The Pumapunku Gateway of the Puma or Jaguara highly damaged pre-Columbian monument at the ancient archaeological site of Tiwanaku, Bolivia, has been reconstructed using 3D printed miniature models of architectural fragments.

File:Puma Punku H profile wall.JPG

Historic photograph of the architecture on the east side of the Pumapunku platform taken by Max Uhle in The ruins of Tiwanaku CE present an archaeological challenge owing to intense looting during the colonial period that effectively demolished the site.

One building in particular, the Pumapunku, was described by Spanish conquistadors and travelers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as a wondrous, though unfinished, building with gateways and windows carved from single blocks.

Unfortunately, during the last five centuries, treasure hunters have ransacked this building to the point that none of approximately shattered remains of blocks of the standing architecture are to be found in their original place. Alexei Vranichan archaeologist at the University of California, Berkeley.

Printing miniature 3D models of the stones allowed us to quickly handle and refit the blocks to try and recreate the structure. The 3D reconstruction of Pumapunku not only shows possible configurations of what the site may have looked like, but also gives clues about the purpose of the building. Vranich said.

Vranich and colleagues printed 3D models of a total of pieces of andesite and 17 slabs of sandstone based on measurements compiled by various scholars over the past century and a half of the height, length and width of the blocks found at the site of Tiwanaku. Once modelled on the computer and then made solid with a 3D printer, they then physically manipulated the blocks to reconstruct the site, trying out different ways in which they may fit together.

The results are presented in the journal Heritage Science. Alexei Vranich. Reconstructing ancient architecture at Tiwanaku, Bolivia: the potential and promise of 3D printing. Heritage Science 6: 65; doi: Andesite blocks at Pumpapunku. Image credit: Alexei Vranich. Archaeology Featured. Webb Launches to Study Universe in Infrared. Physicists Create New Isotope of Magnesium.

All Rights Reserved. Back to top.Transcript of the conference by Prof. Click on the icon on the right to watch it fullscreen. Available on Youtube!

The first results of this research were published recently in leading international scientific journals:. The study carried out on the monumental stones constituting the Pumapunku site in Tiahuanaco, Bolivia, proves that the stones are artificial and are not carved with unknown technology or by extraterrestrials. It is the human genius, intelligently exploiting the resources of its environment, who created these marvels. Tiahuanaco, on Lake Titicaca in Bolivia, is a village known throughout the world for its mysterious Gate of the Sun, ruins of temples and its pyramid.

Archaeologists consider that this site was built well before the Incas, around to AD The site of Pumapunku is right next door with the ruins of an enigmatic pyramidal temple built at the same time. Because it is not restored and developed for touristic activity, it is less known to the general public.

However, there are two architectural curiosities there: four giant red sandstone terraces weighing between and tons and small blocks of andesite, an extremely hard volcanic stone, whose complex shapes and millimetric precision are incompatible with the technology of the time. And for good reason, since archeology tells us that the Tiwanakans had only stone tools and no metal hard enough to carve the rock.

But they would have carved the gigantic blocks of red sandstone these ancient blocks are the largest of all the American continent! Also, they would have been able to carve other smaller blocks made of volcanic andesite, an impossible-to-carve stone with an incredible finish!

Archaeologists cannot give any rational explanations on how this was possible. In Novemberthe scientists gathered samples taken in the red sandstone and andesite from the Pumapunku site. For the first time, these stones were analyzed under the electron microscope, this had never been done before! They discovered the artificial nature of the stones.

Andesite rock is a volcanic stone from magma. It is composed mainly of silica in the form of plagioclase feldspar, amphibole and pyroxene.Puma punku is the name of a large temple complex located near Tiwanaku, in Bolivia, and is part of a larger archaeological site known as Tiahuanacu.

The most intriguing thing about Puma punku is the stonework. Puma punku was a terraced earthen mound originally faced with megalithic blocks, each weighing several tens of tons.

The red sandstone and andesite stones were cut in such a precise way that they fit perfectly into and lock with each other without using mortar. The technical finesse and precision displayed in these stone blocks is astounding.

Why Is The Stone At Puma Punku In Bolivia Magnetic?

Not even a razor blade can slide between the rocks. Some of these blocks are finished to 'machine' quality and the holes drilled to perfection. This is supposed to have been achieved by a civilization that had no writing system and was ignorant of the existence of the wheel.

Extraordinary craftsmanship is displayed in the stones. Photo credit. In assembling the walls of Puma punku, each stone was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones and the blocks fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints without the use of mortar. One common engineering technique involves cutting the top of the lower stone at a certain angle, and placing another stone on top of it which was cut at the same angle.

The precision with which these angles have been utilized to create flush joints is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting and a thorough understanding of descriptive geometry.

Original article in language

Many of the joints are so precise that not even a razor blade will fit between the stones. Much of the masonry is characterized by accurately cut rectilinear blocks of such uniformity that they could be interchanged for one another while maintaining a level surface and even joints.

Some of the stones are in an unfinished state, showing some of the techniques used to shape them. They were initially pounded by stone hammers—which can still be found in numbers on local andesite quarries—, creating depressions, and then slowly ground and polished with flat stones and sand. The stones are of mammoth proportion. The largest of these blocks is Due to their size, the method by which they were transported to Puma punku has been another topic of interest since the temple's discovery.

Chemical analysis reveal the red sandstone blocks were transported up a steep incline from a quarry near Lake Titicaca roughly 10 kilometers away. The smaller andesite blocks that were used for stone facing and carvings came from quarries within the Copacabana Peninsula about 90 kilometers away from across Lake Titicaca.

Free PUMA PUNKU STONE BLOCKS BOLIVIA Photos and Images

An example of high-precision small holes. Based on circumstantial evidences, it can be argued that Puma punku was never built by the Tiwanaku, but by a civilization that was more advanced. Perhaps the carbon dating results were wrong due to contamination of the samples, or that Puma punku was built by another civilization that came across the ocean, built the complex and left. The complex is in complete ruins today with huge blocks of granite lying around on top of each other.Heritage Science volume 6Article number: 65 Cite this article.

Metrics details. The ruins of Tiwanaku A. One building in particular, known as the Pumapunku, was described by Spanish conquistadors and travelers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, as a wondrous, though unfinished, building with gateways and windows carved from single blocks. Unparalleled in the pre-Colombian New World, the craftsmanship of this masonry has long been considered the architectural apogee of Andean pre-Colombian lithic technology. Unfortunately, during the last years, treasure hunters have ransacked this building to the point that none of approximately shattered remains of blocks of the standing architecture are to be found in their original place.

Over the last century and a half, several different scholars have carefully measured the shattered architecture and even managed to join several fragments to form complete pieces. This research revisited these historic field notes with a view to transforming this century and a half of documentation into solid 3D form. This tactile engagement, along with the ability to quickly try out combinations of the 3D-printed pieces, led to fresh and often unexpected insights.

Once refined and simplified, this methodology, was demonstrated to the indigenous site managers who were provided with a full copy of the printed architectural fragments with a view to continuing research and to present the work to visitors, stakeholders and other scholars. The case study is the highly damaged pre-Colombian monument in the high Andes of Bolivia known as the Pumapunku Gateway of the Puma or Jaguar.

The intent of the project, then, was to translate the inconceivable into the conceivable, or in more precise terms, to translate the complex and cumbersome data that is difficult to visualize and test into something that both our hands and our minds could grasp. Unlike pottery or bone artifacts, which archaeologists are accustomed to handling and refitting due to their smaller size, the majority of the blocks were too large to move.

To overcome this challenge, the project team tested a variety of field-recording techniques, eventually relying almost exclusively on an extensive set of archival field records from various scholars to manually input and create virtual 3D models of architectural fragments. Thereafter, the project used additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3D printing, to create reduced and accurate models of the fragments.

Having the pieces all visible and immediately accessible resulted in an engaging and non-stop process of trial and error and moments of insight that could be quickly tested on the models. Due to the quantity of ashlars that has been lost or remains unexcavated, a full reconstruction of this building is unlikely, at least for the moment; nevertheless, this research reconstructs enough of the building to understand the form of the building. Those interpretations are beyond the scope of the paper; in their place, for this publication we focus on the manner in which we can revalue previous fieldwork from the last century and created a novel, effective and non-invasive methodology of reconstructing shattered architecture that can be comprehensible to a wide range of stakeholders.

Similar to the Nile River and the Indus Valley, the Titicaca basin holds the distinctions of being one of the few places on earth where civilization arose sui generis. The earliest example of public ritual architecture in the Titicaca basin, the sunken court, dates to B. This hallmark of Titicaca architecture comes to an end around A. At the site of Chiripa B. In the approximate center of the southern valley of the basin lies a series of pyramids and platforms that marks the center of the ruins of Tiwanaku, occupied ca.

Descriptions of monumental Tiwanaku focus on two zones located east and southwest of the modern town of Tiwanaku Fig.Pumapunku or Puma Punku Aymara and Quechua puma cougar, puma, punku door, Hispanicized Puma Puncu is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku Site near Tiwanaku, in western Bolivia. It is believed to date to AD and later. Tiwanaku is significant in Inca traditions because it is believed to be the site where the world was created.

The Pumapunku complex consists of an unwalled western court, a central unwalled esplanade, a terraced platform mound that is faced with stone, and a walled eastern court. The Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with blocks. It is On the northeast and southeast corners of the Pumapunku, it has metre foot wide projections that extend This structure consists of a stone terrace that is 6.

This terrace is paved with multiple enormous stone blocks. It contains the largest stone slab found in both the Pumapunku and Tiwanaku Site, measuring 7. Based upon the specific gravity atoi decimal the red sandstone from which it was carved, this stone slab has been estimated to weigh metric tons. The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone.

The core of the Pumapunku consists of clay. The fill underlying selected parts of the edge of the Pumapunku consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay. Excavations at the Pumapunku have documented "three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodeling". At its peak, Pumapunku is thought to have been "unimaginably wondrous," adorned with polished metal plaques, brightly colored ceramic and fabric ornamentation, and visited by costumed citizens, elaborately dressed priests, and elites decked in exotic jewelry.

Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, and the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, looting, stone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering. The area within the kilometer separating the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes has been surveyed using ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, induced electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility. The geophysical data collected from these surveys and excavations have revealed the presence of numerous man-made structures in the area between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes.

Researchers have worked to determine the age of the Pumapunku complex since the discovery of the Tiwanaku site. As noted by Andean specialist, W. Isbell, professor at Binghamton University, a radiocarbon date was obtained by Vranich from organic material from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill forming the Pumapunku. C14, calibrated date. Since the radiocarbon date came from the lowermost and oldest layer of mound-fill underlying the andesite and sandstone stonework, the stonework must have been constructed sometime after — AD.

The excavation trenches of Vranich show that the clay, sand, and gravel fill of the Pumapunku complex lie directly on the sterile middle Pleistocene sediments. These excavation trenches also demonstrated the lack of any pre-Andean Middle Horizon cultural deposits within the area of the Tiwanaku Site adjacent to the Pumapunku complex. The largest of these stone blocks is 7.

The second largest stone block found within the Pumapunku is 7. Its weight has been estimated to beUsername or Email Address. Remember Me. Puma Punku is situated at an altitude of 12, above sea level and is part of complex of structures at Tiwanaku Spanish: Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu which is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. It is thought to have begun as a village around BC and to have flourished between to AD as the capital of an empire that extended into present-day Peru and Chile.

Its ruins are near the southeastern of Lake Titicaca.

The Door of the Puma (Puma Punku) at 3,870 meters (12,696 ft) above sea level, Tiwanaku, Bolivia.

Current understanding of this complex is limited due to its age, the lack of a written record, the current deteriorated state of the structures due to treasure hunting, looting, stone mining for building stone and railroad ballast, and natural weathering. Excavations have documented three major building epochs, in addition to small repairs and remodelling. The monumental stone architecture is of exceptional workmanship. At Pumapunku, the most prominent feature is a man-made rectangular, terraced platform, 6.

Its architecture comprises rectangular ashlar blocks laid in regular courses. The largest stone block of red sandstone found in the Tiwanaku site is estimated to weigh metric tons. The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone. The core of the Pumapunku consists of clay. The fill underlying selected parts of the edge of the Pumapunku consists of river sand and cobbles instead of clay. The quarries that supplied the stone blocks for Tiwanaku lie at significant distances from this site.

The red sandstone has been determined by petrographic analysis to come from a quarry 10 kilometres away. The green andesite stones that were used to create the most elaborate carvings and monoliths originate from the Copacabana peninsula, located across Lake Titicaca. Several theories have been proposed as to how this labor force transported the stones although these ideas remain speculative.

Theories involve the use of llama skin ropes, the use of ramps and that the the giant andesite stones, weighing over 40 tons, were transported some 90 kilometres across Lake Titicaca on reed boats, then laboriously dragged another 10 kilometres to the city. Such paved structures at Tiwanaku frequently included elaborate drainage systems involving conduits composed of red sandstone blocks held together by I shaped cramps.

The I-shaped cramps of the nearby Akapana were created by the cold hammering of ingots made from copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy while in contrast at Pumapunku were created by pouring molten a unique copper-arsenic-nickel bronze alloy metal into the I-shaped sockets. The stone for the the walls of Pumpunku was finely cut to interlock with the surrounding stones and the blocks fit together like a puzzle, forming load-bearing joints.

Such precision with which the stone has been prepared to create flush joints without mortar and whereby not even a razor blade will fit between them, is indicative of a highly sophisticated knowledge of stone-cutting. This suggests the possibility of prefabrication, technologies far in advance of their Inca successors hundreds of years later.

There gmk dolch stones cut with perfect right angles and the surfaces extremely smooth. Ground-penetrating radar, magnetometry, induced electrical conductivity, and magnetic susceptibility surveys between the Pumapunku and Kalasasaya complexes have revealed the presence of numerous man-made structures.

Engineers at Tiwanku in those ancient times were adept at developing a civic infrastructure, constructing functional irrigation systems, hydraulic mechanisms, and waterproof sewage lines. One of the most important archaeological artifacts ever discovered in the area is the famous Fuente Magna Bowl.Puma Punku, an archaeological site that is part of the Tiahuanaco complex in Bolivia, still divides opinion on its origins, which may date back to a period before the official recognised date.

The blocks that are strewn around the landscape in a seemingly chaotic manner are in fact positioned and very precisely made to a degree that nowadays could only be achieved by means of computer assisted machines.

Located one kilometre from the city of Tiahuanaco the Puma Punko site is part an ancient cultural complex. This site is known for its many andesites and sandstone blocks in complex atypical shapes of remarkable precision. Experts and Archaeologists suggest that its blocks were dj juice vol 25 with stone hammers before being slowly sanded with flat stones and sand.

The site appears to have been completely destroyed and many blocks remain trapped in a thick layer of dried mud. Skip to content. Selected: Puma Punku bloc 2.

Puma Punku bloc 2 quantity. Previous Product. Description Additional information Description Located one kilometre from the city of Tiahuanaco the Puma Punko site is part an ancient cultural complex. Caracteristics :.

Puma Punku, cast in minerals. Grey finish dyed throughout. Download the manual :. Frensh artisanal manufacture. Additional information Weight 1 kg. Opens in a new window Tweet This Product. Quick View. The other stonework and facing of the Pumapunku consists of a mixture of andesite and red sandstone. Pumapunku's core consists of clay, while the fill under. The most intriguing thing about Puma punku is the stonework.

Puma punku was a terraced earthen mound originally faced with megalithic blocks. For example, inthe stones of the Pumapunku were rearranged as part The large sandstone slabs were leveled and several blocks were.

Puma Punku's large blocks are a common red sandstone that was quarried about 10 kilometers away. Many of the smaller stones, including the. The mystery lies in the precision and complexity of the structures that pervade the ruin. The finely cut doorways and remaining stone blocks bear no chisel.

Here we are, a century-and-a-half later, and irrepressible rumors continue to grow that Puma Punku's massively heavy stone block structures. Jun 23, - Ancient Technology Megalithic Stone Carvings at Pumapunku, site for many is Puma Punku, a cluster of shattered hard stone building block. A virtual model of a building at Pumapunku displays stones in and windows carved from single blocks of stone, according to Vranich.

The platform on top of the 4-step pyramid of Pumapunku consists of 4 megalithic red sandstone slabs marked in red Nr 1, Nr 2, Nr 3, Nr 4. Pumapunku (Bolivia) as Geopolymer Constructs blocks of andesite, an extremely hard volcanic stone, whose.

complex shapes and millimetric. Secondly, the stones are of megalithic proportion – with the largest reportedly weighing tonnes. These larger blocks consist of red. Download this stock image: Puma Punku Stone Blocks - Bolivia - EX64PB from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and.

Download this stock image: Puma Punku Stone Blocks - Bolivia - EX64PA from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and. Picture of Puma Punku Stone Blocks - Bolivia stock photo, images and stock photography.

Image The method of mounting stone blocks. The grooves in the stones in which metal elements · Ruins of Puma Punku, Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Tiwanaku site; Pumapunku site; Andean Archeology; Titicaca Lake Region (Peru and Bolivia); The largest of Pumapunku's stone is a sandstone block. Identical figured blocks of Puma Punku Ruins, Tiwanaku. Identical figured blocks of Puma Puma Punku Stone Blocks - Bolivia.

Accurately cut andesite rock. Photo about Puma Punku Stone Blocks in Bolivia. Image of archeology, punku, mason - Stone blocks at Pumapunku. Pumapunku also called "Puma Pumku" or "Puma The Pumapunku is a terraced earthen mound that is faced with megalithic blocks. Photo about Puma Punku Stone Blocks in Bolivia. Image of bolivia, blocks, chiseled -